Practically speaking, you can't use a color to stand for something else unless the reader knows what that "something else" is, either from their own experience, or from something you have mentioned earlier in your text.
That said, you can leave something undefined for a long time, so that the reader gradually becomes aware of its meaning. Kazuo Ishiguro does this very skillfully in The Buried Giant.
I'm assuming from your question that you want to use the color nouns to create a certain mood in your reader's mind, and that you are looking for some ideas on how to do this "correctly". I think this is a good goal, and you shouldn't be discouraged by comments that focus excessively on grammar and conventional usage.
It's not easy to create moods, though, and my personal recommendation is that you study the work of writers that have done this successfully.
Depending on your writing goals, the collection of Science Fiction short stories at Project Gutenberg might be a good place to start. Short stories often rely on the "surprise" change of perception at the end, and SF short story writers are particularly adept at misleading their readers, in part because the stories are often set in contexts where the reader's past experience can't be reliably applied.
You may be familiar with the story that Hunter S. Thompson typed out F. Scott Fitzgerald's The Great Gatsby in order to understand Fitzgerald's writing style. If not, it's here.