The earliest example I have been able to find is this one from 1845 (although it also includes "physical strength"):
Time, talent, treasure and physical strength, which, if applied to the promotion of social improvement, the advancement of science and the furtherance of education, would convert in a very short period the whole earth into a paradise...
Maine Cultivator and Hallowell Gazette (Hallowell, Maine) • 07-05-1845 • Page 1
I also found some other examples that were very close in date to this one. Here's a quote from 1848 from an article about a Presbyterian missionary:
Is this alone not a sufficient reward for all the expenditure of time, talent, treasure and life by the friends of colonization?
Spectator (New York, New York) • 07-17-1848 • Page 1
I actually did find an example that doesn't list a fourth thing, in a newspaper from 1852:
Time, talent and treasure have been devoted...
Norfolk Democrat, published as The Norfolk Democrat (Dedham, Massachusetts) • 07-30-1852 • Page 1
A newspaper from 1853 article entitled Rebuilding of St. Thomas' Church gives an example from England:
...instead of expending their time, taste, talent, and treasure upon this good work...
Isle of Wight Observer (Ryde, England), Saturday, June 11, 1853; Issue 41.