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Is it correct to say "the sun is shining" I wonder if I want to refer to right now, I can use 'ing' or not in this case.

I am also sure how to say "a bag is in my hand now". I s it correct to say "I am holding a bag?"

How can I understand if I can use a verb in a sentences with "ing" or not? Is there any rule?

forexample is it correct to ask "is he smiling?"

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All sentences are correct, except for "I am holding a bag?". Remember that interrogative questions must include the auxiliary verb (to be) before the subject, in this case, I, so the sentence should be Am I holding a bag?.

The present continuous tense (e.g. The sun is shining) is used for actions that are happening right now, as we're speaking, which means that they're usually actions that require some time to be completed.

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    It's perfectly grammatical to not use inversion in a question and rely on intonation or a question mark to make it clear it's a question. There's nothing grammatically wrong with "I am holding a bag?" (although I'd prefer "I'm" instead of "I am").
    – Laurel
    Apr 30 '18 at 18:33
  • It’s definitely correct to not use inversion in a question, but I suggested it wouldn’t be correct because of the lack of coherence. Let me explain: It can be used in questions that, for example, ask for a confirmation rather than a developed answer, e.g. You’re going to buy the car?, and even then, these questions have a “So” or “...right?” within. In my opinion, not using inversion has the same effect here, the person is asking for confirmation rather than asking if they’re actually holding a bag, which doesn’t make a lot of sense, and I repeat, it’s my opinion, not an absulute truth.
    – PabloV
    Apr 30 '18 at 19:55
  • Your further explanation makes no sense. It's the equivalent of saying that "That hurts!" is ungrammatical because we don't know what the pronoun refers to. You're confusing semantics with grammar. May 1 '18 at 8:15

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