In words such as fireman and tribesman, the suffix -man means "one having responsibility for" or "one belong to" (and possibly other types of relationship, such as the bewildering variety demonstrated by the genitive 's).

What's the earliest recorded use of the suffix -man with this or a similar meaning in English?

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It seems to me like "man"/"men" has always been used like this. For example, "shipmen" (meaning sailors) was used in Bede's Ecclesiastical History, which was written around the year 900:

Þa ongunnon þa nedlingas & þa scipmen þa oncras upp teon.

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