In deciding how to render foreign degrees, credentials, titles, etc. in an English context, a great deal depends on the purpose of the communication. If one is translating a literary work, or if one is casually conversing at a party, one may choose a term that best brings out the aspects of the original that are relevant to the context, even if it is not quite accurate as to its other aspects. Thus, if one has a Licenciatura in, say, mathematics, and one’s ability to teach is not relevant to the context, in a casual conversation one may simply one say that one has a bachelor’s degree in mathematics. On the other hand, if the casual conversation revolves around teaching, one may say that one has a bachelor’s degree in education, or that one’s first degree is in the teaching of mathematics, or that one is licensed to teach mathematics in Brazil.
Things are, however, quite different when one has an obligation to represent one’s qualifications with complete accuracy, as is the case when one is applying for a job or for further education. In such a case, the question is not what is the correct translation of this or that word, but what is the equivalent of the foreign credential in the country in which one seeks to use it. The equivalence is not a question of language, but of substantive academic judgment, and, in some cases, of the law. It is determined by the authorities that govern the field in which one intends to use the qualification. Sometimes these authorities are governmental, sometimes they are private professional organizations that are generally trusted in the relevant field. If one’s foreign degrees have been found by such an authority to be equivalent to such-and-such degrees, one may say that one has the latter, without worrying that one will be accused of cheating. However, if there has been no formal finding of the equivalence, the only proper thing is to leave the name of the degree untranslated (as has been suggested by Mr. Ashworth in the comments), or to translate it literally, and then explain its nature. The explanation may include saying that one believes it to be approximately equivalent to a particular degree, as long as one makes it clear that one is not claiming to actually have the latter.
A month after this question, an essentially equivalent one was asked on the Workplace Stack Exchange; anybody reading this page will find it instructive to also read the answers that are provided there. The answers to a related question on the Academia Stack Exchange are likely to be illuminating as well.