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I mean two people who have the same job, but do not work together at the same place. I'm thinking about the word "counterpart", but I'm not sure about it! For example, considering two American film directors such as Spielberg and Altman, can I say that Altman (who is dead now) is Spielberg's late counterpart?

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For someone who has the same job as someone else earlier, I would recommenced using the word successor.

Collins defines successor as:

noun

a person or thing that succeeds, or follows, another; esp., one who succeeds to an office, title, etc.

As for someone who had the same job as someone who currently does, I would recommend the term predecessor

Collins defines predecessor as:

noun

  1. a person who precedes or preceded another, as in office

Hope this is helpful!

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Robert Altman directed the M*A*S*H movie.  The works of Steven Spielberg, a fellow director, may be better known to today’s audiences.

Some terms, while not explicitly saying that people are or were in the same job, field, or profession, imply it by juxtaposition:

Speaking of movies, we know from Amadeus that Mozart and Salieri were contemporaries; they were in the same cohort.  While the movie depicted them as rivals, Wikipedia suggests that they might have been “mutually respectful peers”.  Beethoven was also their contemporary.

Johann Sebastian Bach was senior to Salieri, Mozart and Beethoven by about 60-70 years.

In my opinion, Bach was a superior composer compared to his juniors.

Saruman was Sauron’s right-hand man — or at least he thought he was, and aspired to be.  In fact, he was far subordinate to the Dark Lord.

Luke Skywalker was an apprentice to Yoda in the ways of the Force and the Jedi Knights.


fellow:
Merriam-Webster:

      2 a : an equal in rank, power, or character : peer
      • discussions among a group of fellows from the nearby Los Alamos National Laboratory —Roger Lewin
      3 : a member of a group having common characteristics; specifically : a member of an incorporated literary or scientific society

contemporary:
Merriam-Webster:

      happening, existing, living, or coming into being during the same period of time

cohort:
Merriam-Webster:

      group of individuals having a statistical factor (such as age or class membership) in common in a demographic study

peer:
Merriam-Webster:

      one that is of equal standing with another

senior:
Merriam-Webster:

      1.  a person older than another
      2a. a person with higher standing or rank

superior:
Merriam-Webster:

      of higher rank, quality, or importance

right-hand man:
Oxford Dictionaries:

      An indispensable helper or chief assistant.

subordinate:
Merriam-Webster:

    • placed in or occupying a lower class, rank, or position : inferior - a subordinate officer
    • submissive to or controlled by authority

apprentice:
Merriam-Webster:

      one who is learning by practical experience under skilled workers a trade, art, or calling - a carpenter’s apprentice

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