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The plural of the English loadword vena cava from Latin is venae cavae. What are the etymological and grammatical reasons for this plural? Why are both words in a single term pluralized? And are there other similar terms in English?

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    plural feminine nouns of the first declension end in -ae in nominative and vocative case, and case of adjectives is governed by the noun the modify. now the fun for you of learning of latin morphology...
    – user31341
    Commented Mar 18, 2018 at 21:11
  • The plural of the French loan words chaise longue, bon mot, and agent provacateur really should be chaises longues, bons mots and agents provacateurs. Commented Sep 9, 2019 at 12:01

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The phrase "vena cava" literally translates from the Latin "hollow (like a cave) vein".

In Romance languages, the adjective is pluralized with the noun, hence "venae cavae".

As for examples of other plural Latin phrases in English; these are rare. The only I find is "almae matres" as the technically correct, but increasingly unused, plural of "alma mater".

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