I read from TheFreeDictionary http://www.thefreedictionary.com/Gerunds.htm the examples "Studying too hastily will result in a poor grade." and "Working from home allows me to spend more time with my family." with the specification
... in this case, it is the gerund phrase that is functioning as a noun, so the gerund itself can still be modified by an adverb in the same way as a normal verb.
However, I read from some posts regarding gerunds in the current site English Language & Usage that gerunds can also be modified by adjectives.
Then, I found from the above webpage the further example "She started going crazy from so much waiting." I wonder whether "so much" here works as an adjective or adverb modifying the gerund waiting. I feel it's like both ways are OK.
In addition, I also looked up "persistent" https://www.thefreedictionary.com/persistent, finding an example which uses the adjective persistent to modifying the gerund questioning: "your persistent questioning". And then, I looked up "continual" https://www.thefreedictionary.com/continual, finding a further example of this kind: "a process that requires continual monitoring", wherein the adjective continual modifies the gerund monitoring.
Nevertheless, I have never seen an example of "gerund + object" with modifiers modifying the gerund therein, so I wonder which of adjectives and adverbs should be used to modify the gerund therein. For example, is it OK to say "With my persistent broadening the horizon of my knowledge of cosmology, my interest in it is ever growing."? Or should I say "With my persistently broadening the horizon of my knowledge of cosmology, my interest in it is ever growing."?
After some studying about gerunds, I feel real gerunds should be modified by adverbs and those terms with the form v.-ing modified by adjectives should be viewed as nouns rather than gerunds.