There is a whole terminology in the astrology/astronomy area for the angular relations among celestial objects and interpreted meanings associated with each. This is called Astrological aspect These angles are important for analyzing astrological charts which map out the angles among the sun, moon, and planets.
- conjunction - when two bodies are at the same angular position or zero degrees. A solar eclipse, where the moon is in front of the sun, or any occultation is a conjunction. The new moon is in conjunction just not exactly (the moon is very very close, on the celestial sphere, to the sun then).
- sextile - sixty degrees apart. Because 60 degrees is a sixth of the 360 in the full circle, and (six is the root of 'sextile')
- square or quadrature - ninety degrees apart. A half moon or first or third quarter is 'in square' with the sun.
- trine 120 degrees apart, because 120 is a third of 360 (three is the root of 'trine').
- opposition - 180 degrees apart. A full moon or a lunar eclipse is an opposition with the sun because the Earth is directly between the sun and moon.
The way to use all these aspects is to say 'X is in (aspect) with Y' for example:
'A moon in trine with the Sun is gibbous, but in sextile with the sun, it is crescent.'
Both opposition and conjunction are names for syzygy which are three celestial bodies metaphorically 'yoked' together in a line, sy - zygy. See also zeugma, yoga, and join, but not yolk.
There's a vocabulary for minor angles, but they are not as salient or important astrologically as the major aspects.