For instance for male or female the comparable word would be sex. What is the word that means the state of being either even or odd (referring to numbers)?
- Mathematics (of a number) the fact of being even or odd.
What about simply evenness? I think this would require less explanation than parity. If you mentioned parity to a non-mathematical readership, you'd definitely have to explain what was meant.
According to Wiktionary, evenness means:
The quality of being even.
and obviously one of those meanings of even is the one you're referring to.