I'll just mention a simple example to make myself clear. English Rules suggest that a Compound Sentence can be formed using the following structures: 1.) [Independent Clause] , coordinate conj. [independent clause] . 2.) [Independent clause] ; conjunctive adverb , [independent clause] .

Can subordinate conjunctions make up a compound sentence by possibly acting as a coordinate conj. or conjunctive adverb in any case?


Mark goes to church daily, although he was busy today. (Independent clause) (conj.) (Independent clause)


Mark goes to church daily; although, he was busy today. (Independent clause) (conj.) (Independent clause)

Is it possible for "although" to be considered as a coordinating conjunction itself and not connecting it with the Independent clause?

  • Traditional grammar treats "although" as a subordinating conjunction, so "although he was busy today" is a subordinate (dependent) clause.
    – BillJ
    Mar 8, 2018 at 13:05

2 Answers 2


According to this guy,

50 Subordinating Conjunctions And Why They Matter

the answer is no.

The coordinating conjunctions are the words and, but, for, nor, or, so, and yet.

There are lots of subordinating conjunctions, including 50 listed in the article, and they all belong within a sentence subordinating a dependent clause to an independent clause. A passage like yours (Mark goes to church daily; although, he was busy today.) contains a fragment.

A few of the examples seem strange to me. I guess that there are words (on that list of 50 words) that can be used as subordinating conjunctions or in some other way, so that a string of words beginning with one of the 50, intended as a single independent clause, could be objectionable or not, depending on the sense.

To me, the following sentences sound correct, although they begin in a naughty way.

  • Even my mother agrees.
  • Now I like swimming.
  • Once I built a railroad.
  • Why are you angry?

I have trouble imagining why the first two are on the list at all. I guess that in some foreign place they say things like “He left it at home, even he knew he would need it,” or “He will bring it tomorrow, now he knows he will need it,” where right-thinking Americans would say “even though” and “now that.” But even then, I don't see the objection in making "now he knows he will need it" an independent clause.

Maybe the next two examples are on the list to prevent these constructions.

  • I will call you tomorrow. Once I have made my decision.
  • I figured out. Why you are angry.

There, the periods before “once” and “why” should be changed to commas, and the following words should be in lower-case.


The difference between coordinating and subordinating conjunctions is the effect they have on the meaning of the clause that comes after them.


  1. [Mark went to church], and [Mark was busy today].
  2. [Mark went to church], although [Mark was busy today].

In #1, both clauses have equal weight. "Mark went to church" and "Mark was busy" are two different pieces of information. ‘And’ suggests they are linked, but doesn’t tell you exactly how.

In #2, because of the different type of conjunction used, the second clause is now definitely linked to the first clause. It's not giving you new and possibly unrelated information about Mark, it's adding EXTRA information specifically to his trip to church.

  • Hello, Sarah. Semantics-based definitions of grammatical terms are rarely workable; inconsistencies and exceptions soon prove a problem. Nov 1, 2023 at 16:06

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