I'm not quite sure which would be right.

(i) A comparative study of Spain and United Kingdom's Response to EU Mechanism (ii) A comparative study of Spain and United Kingdom's Responses to EU Mechanism

Also, should it be comparative study of or into? In this paper, I'll be discussing the different explanatory variables shaping the two countries' different responses to the scheme.

I hope I'm clear, and I appreciate any help with this!


Spain and the United Kingdom's response

would only work if there was a single response jointly issued by both countries. It is the same as:

John and Mary's child     John and Mary are the parents of a child.

John's and Mary's children     John and Mary have children, but not together.

Using the possessive of the countries and a plural responses indicates different "parentage," but doesn't limit the number of responses to just one each unless it's clear from context:

Spain's and the United Kingdom's responses

Some find a double possessive like this rather ponderous, so you could use adjectives instead:

the Spanish and British responses

Here again, context would have to limit to one response each.

You could further lighten the title by using a colon and a subtitle:

"The Spanish and British Responses to [Whatever]: A Comparative Study"

We say a [comparative] study in a particular field:

A Comparative Study in the Aesthetics of Paul Valery and Edgar Allan Poe

A comparative study of x is simply about what is compared:

American & British Romanticism: A Comparative Study of Edgar Allan Poe & Other Romantic Poets

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