Can you explain the grammar of this expression and in what situations it can be used?

"you [something] you"

E.g. Get away from me you filthy woman you.

  • The OED attributes an early use to Shakespeare in Midsummer Night's Dream: "Fy, fy, you counterfait, you puppet, you." – RaceYouAnytime Feb 14 '18 at 2:30

I've never seen this construction discussed. It appears to be a vocative that may occur at the end of a root sentence. A vocative expression refers to a person to whom something is said by the speaker of the sentence. A root sentence is a sentence which cannot be a constituent within another sentence other than a direct quotation. (The notion of "root sentence" is due to the linguist Joseph Emonds.)

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