I have two questions.

1) Why is there a comma in the following line:

"the work of art, are identified"

2) What is/are the subject of "are identified" in the previous sentence?

Here is the full excerpt for context:

"Dickie is here developing a direction pointed to in the other (and earlier) of the two most influential writings in institutional theory, “The art world” by Arthur Danto (1964) (to which I will return). There, what Danto calls “the atmosphere of theory,” and the historical relatedness or relational properties of the work of art, are identified as essential conditions for arthood."

Source: I have got these lines from a textbook on art theory.

closed as off-topic by MetaEd Feb 8 '18 at 15:53

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  • Avoid asking more than one question in one post. Such questions may be closed because they are a poor fit for a Q&A format. – MetaEd Feb 8 '18 at 15:53
  • @MetaEd You should be removed from the moderator role. Whom can I speak about you? I am asking legit questions. – krishe kesi Feb 8 '18 at 21:51
  • @ you need to read the rules here english.stackexchange.com/help/on-topic. I am asking grammar-related questions, not asking to do proofreading. – krishe kesi Feb 8 '18 at 22:12
  • Reports of moderator abuse are always welcome. The best way to proceed is probably to post your complaint to the Community Management Team Inbox. – MetaEd Feb 9 '18 at 1:58

The subject of 'are identified' are, collectively (hence the plural form of the verb)

1.what Danto calls the atmosphere of theory

  1. the historical relatedness or relational properties of the work of art

The comma is not necessary, but is there, I suspect, because the writer found his sentence taking on such a length and degree of complication that he felt it should have some kind of break in it. In form the sentence is no more than "The cabbage and the potatoes were boiled". It would be odd to put in a comma after potatoes, but that is what this writer has done.

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