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I have a case where a certain amount of money is paid to a payment system for the transaction (like if you send money overseas you pay like $20 per transaction to a SWIFT company).

My colleague translated this as "fee" and this seem to be ok. But somehow this looks like more a "commission" to me.

What is the difference in meaning between these terms?

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As OED says commission is:

...typically a set percentage of the value involved

As for fee, it is described in the same source as:

1.1 Money paid as part of a special transaction, for example for a privilege or for admission to something.

and thus implies payment necessary to get entrance for transaction (i.e., you have to pay something to enter a bank transaction).

The easiest way of charging a fee during a bank transaction is taking percentage (commission). According to the 1st link above in OED 'commission' is commonly used to refer to percentage in money transactions.

But I guess if no percentage is involved, it's appropriate to use 'fee' as well. So the situation and technicalities should apply.

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    Agreed. A commission is a percentage-based charge. Technically a commission is a fee, but it's more common (at least in the English spoken where I live, in western Canada) to call specified, non-percentage charges a fee, although sometimes people call that a "flat fee" to ensure that people understand it's a set amount and not variable. – Jim MacKenzie Feb 6 '18 at 14:41

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