The term coincident can be used to mean either "ocurring at the same time" or "occuring at the same place". The related verb coincide was brought up in an answer to a similar question: A word for 'to exist in the same place as something else'
The space-related definition of coincident is the first in the Oxford English Dictionary (OED):
- Occupying the same place or portion of space.
The examples that the OED gives to illustrate this definition seem to come from optics.
I don't know of a word that clearly refers to space and not time and has this exact meaning. The Merriam Webster thesaurus entry for coincident suggests the following synonyms for the sense "occupying the same space":
coextensive, coinciding, conterminous, coterminous
and the following "related" words:
allover, overlaying, superimposed, superposed, underlying
conjoining, crisscrossing, intersecting, overlapping
coaxial, concurrent, convergent