In 8 types of parenthetical phrases, he includes

  1. Free modifier: A free modifier is an unspecialized interruption of additional information: “I stood up and, brushing off my pants, continued along my way.”
  • Terminology is not standardised here. Many will contest the labelling of Nichol's 1. “Jane stayed up late, writing her report.” as showing an example of an absolute construction. Laying aside terminologies, I'd say that example (1) here shows more of a reason than a largely unconnected second statement (thus 1'. “Jane stayed up late: she was writing her report.”). (4') might be “I stood up – woops, had to brush a few crumbs off my pants – and continued along my way.” which merely interpolates an unpredicted / only peripherally related event / action between standing and leaving. – Edwin Ashworth Jan 29 '18 at 0:00
  • how frustrating @EdwinAshworth i may have to use that 18 item list for parentheses. – user3293056 Jan 30 '18 at 14:13
  • Uh… 3293056, do you really think each of Nichols's numbered examples is different? – Robbie Goodwin Feb 17 '18 at 1:41

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