The only one that comes to my mind is "oblique," or a similar term like "askew" or "sidelong," but all of those can carry implications of mistrust or doubt. I don't believe there's a single term in English to describe this.
If I were to fill in your examples, I would say:
You have hurt your eye. Moving your eyes is not advised.
Ciliary muscles facilitate occular range of motion.
Bulls have [a] better field of view [and] therefore [a] better awareness of their environment.
Although I'd probably use "wider" instead of "better" in that last example. "Better" is ambiguous without more context.
The problem you'll face is that many of the potential terms are similar to idioms for mistrust or doubt or not seeing well.
To see "out of the corner of your eye" is synonymous with "catching a fleeting glimpse." It's seeing something only briefly, not just from the more literal corner of your visual range of motion.
To view something "askew" might imply that what you're seeing is off-balance or strange; "look askew" can carry a similar meaning as "look askance" which only means to doubt, question, or mistrust. Similarly, a "sidelong glance" connotes body language of trying to keep a secret.