I overheard a claim that this phenomenon is only present in English and Japanese. I'm not well versed in enough other languages to know whether this true, and I find it unlikely to be so. When I attempted to search for examples, I discovered that I don't know what this is called, or if it even has a name.
So, is there a name for groups of words with these relationships?
Bonus points: do you know of other languages in which this phenomenon exists?