Consider the following sentence:
Where have you been all day?
What category does where belong to in that sentence? Is it a determiner or a preposition? Is it something else?
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John Lawler wrote in a comment:
It's the locative interrogative (or wh-) word. It is not a preposition. Many might call it a determiner, but since it's indefinite and interrogative, the name determiner is not a terrific description. If you wanted to call it an interrogative adverb or an interrogative pronoun, that would be OK, though it's not an ordinary adverb or pronoun, either.
BillJ wrote in a comment:
Trad grammar treats this "where" as an interrogative adverb, but modern grammar takes it as a preposition. Its function in the clause is that of locative complement of "been". The complement use of "where" can question location: "Where have you been?": "at what place?", where the prepositional meaning becomes clear.