Deism is the understanding that a collection of natural laws govern existance. But either rejects the existence of supernatural beings, or simply rejects that God or gods take physical form to interact with humans, or that they interfere with the affairs of humans in a manner that causes a favorable or unfavorable outcome. Basically God is a collection of natural laws that govern everything.
Theology deals with gods and goddesses and includes monotheism (one God) which is distinctly different than a force or natural law but a being.
Deism proposed that an omnipotent being, if one existed, would be much too busy to be bothered by our petty daily complaints and desires, and furthormore, would be much too wise than to interfere on anyone's account; for one man's gain is another's loss. Mortal problems should be worked out amongst other mortals using reason, justice, and natural laws as a measure. For a God to intervene would break the law of free will.
Many of the founding fathers of the United States of America were deists and knew exactly the monumental thing they were trying to achieve. They wanted the declaration of Independence and later the Constitution and bill of eights to reflect the deist principles. "All men are created equal" directly challenges anyone who would decide to declare themselves a god, which happened all throughout history.
Early deists included many founding fathers and scientists, and deism was key to the development of modern science. If forces in nature govern the universe, it would make since to find out just what those forces are. Like Voltaire influenced the then Queen of Russia into funding science and allowing more free expression which caused Russia's golden era. In contrast, at the same time in Europe, deist thoughts had to be kept hidden in knights templar, Rosicrucian, and other secret orders.
Many deists find the Bible, Quran, Bhagavad-Gita, and other texts to be allegorical stories that teach society about natural law.
Much could be argued that ancients who were educated knew that the gods were in fact allegory describing the forces in natural law. The Egyptians believed strongly in "as above, so below" which was derived from observation of repeating patterns in nature. Not saying they weren't superstitious, but deism was around long before religions as we know it today.
Thomas Jefferson, George washington, Voltaire, many rebound early scientists. I mean it's the anyone who was anyone list.