• Their physiological arousal also declined quickly to the same levels as those of the control subjects.
  • For example, high noise levels interfered with the performance of subjects who were required to monitor three dials at a time, a task not unlike that of an aeroplane pilot or an air-traffic controller

In the 1st sentence, does the word those replaces for physiological arousal to avoid repetition? And in the 2nd sentence, that replace for which word?

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  • No; 'those' replaces 'physiological arousal levels'. – Edwin Ashworth Dec 28 '17 at 10:35
  • "that" replaces "the task" in your second sentence. – Centaurus Dec 28 '17 at 10:47
  • Thank you everyone. but why 'those' replaces 'physiological arousal levels", not replaces 'physiological arousal' – kookie jeon Dec 28 '17 at 11:48

Yes, in the first instance, "those of" could be replaced with "the physiological arousal levels of".

In the second instance, "that of" refers to the task, generally. It's not very well worded, in my opinion, but you could replace "that of" with "the type of tasks performed by an". The reason I think it's not well worded is that you have a single task in the first instance, but pilots and air-traffic controllers don't just perform this single task: they perform many tasks, including monitoring many different dials or instruments at once, but also doing other things (such as flying the plane). So, it's not a straight swap, if you know what I mean.

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