“This was brought about by the king of Troy’s, Priam’s, death.”
In this sentence, should the ’s be tagged on to “the king of Troy”, “Priam”, or both?
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Two possessive markers can co-exist side by side if there are two "owners". For example,
Agamemnon's wife's name was Clytemnestra
But in the OP's example saying …the king of Troy's Priam's death, without commas, is saying that Priam ‘belongs’ to the King of Troy. That is one too many apostrophes for my liking. Use parenthesis instead of commas to disambiguate the two nouns.
“This was brought about by Priam's (the king of Troy) death.”
Alternatively, I would recommend rephrasing the OP's statement, using a prepositional phrase
It was brought by the death of Priam, the king of Troy.