It seems to me that it is a back-construction of "conviction", in the sense of a firmly held belief or opinion, and is not a recognized word.
Convicted in the sense of convinced shows up in Google NGram (search term: I am convicted or I am convicted that) in the last decade primarily in books on religious commitment--and in this 1742 book, Joseph Andrews, by Henry Fielding:
“Yes, but, Joseph,” said she, a little softened by the compliment to her learning, “If you had a value for me, you certainly would have found some method of showing it me; for I am convicted you must see the value I have for you. Yes, Joseph, my eyes, whether I would or no, must have declared a passion I cannot conquer.—Oh! Joseph!"
Here are a couple of the recent examples:
Hello Mr. Murphy. I am convicted that God has something far better for us. (2011)
I am convicted that in America today, there is a growing hunger for something far, far deeper than the thousand channels of vapid meaningless chatter on cable and on our electronic gadgetry
There is also this example from 1982:
The Cognitive Developmental Psychology of James Mark Baldwin: Current Theory and Research in Genetic Epistemology (1982)
John M. Broughton, D. John Freeman-Moir
Further I am convicted that this source and center exerts, in manifold ways, an attraction, a valence, a drawing into itself of our hunger for excellence of being.
It's a difficult usage to detect, as there are so many false positives and the search engine seems to assume that what was meant was "convinced" instead of "convicted."
I didn't find any hip-hop references.
If seems never to have been common; its recent use in books is in a religious or "value" contexts. It seems to me to be an undesirable use.