In American English, I'm wondering if there is a shorter way to express this (literal) experience. The phrase seems so wordy to me and it's hard to believe that there isn't something more concise. As a native speaker, I have never heard of anything else and alternatives I've thought of such as "winded" or "lost my breath" have different connotations. I'm interested in any alternatives including neologisms and loan words.
It's hardly conversational, but the one-word term is phrenospasm, according to the Free Medical Dictionary available online. A blow to the chest can cause the diaphragm to go into spasm, making it difficult to draw a breath.
Chances are that unless you're speaking or writing to a medical professional, you're better off with "having the wind knocked out."
I have one small suggestion. It has nothing to do with wind being knocked out of one. But they might do for this kind of unpleasant feeling of sudden shock.
I felt pole-axed.
The Collins dictionary explains:-
“If someone is pole-axed, they are so surprised or shocked that they do not know what to say or do. [mainly British, informal] Sitting pole-axed on the sofa, Mahoney stared in astonishment at the spectacle before him.”