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I need some advice on comma placement. I don't really know if I should set off the phrases that come after ", and". I need that sounds too general and vague, but it will become more clear with the examples below

Example 1. I began installing a new system, or ROM, on my phone every weekend and, in the process, broke the poor phone infinite amount of times.

Should the phrase in the process be set off by commas?

Example 2. In total, my victim phone got broken 26 times, and, every single time, I found a way to revive it

should the phrase every single time be set off by commas?

Example 3. English opened the doors of an entirely new world—one brimming with knowledge and values not confined to the limits of my country—for me to explore, and, as I began to explore, my childhood fervor for playing games paved way for a much implacable thirst for learning.

should as I began to explore be set off by commas?

I researched and know that if there is a clause coming after and it should be set off from both sides with commas (correct me if I am wrong). But I don't know what to do in the instances above. Please, if you can, tell me the correct versions of the punctuation in the examples above and (do I put a comma here) if there is a recommended reading material or grammar rule on that, please do not hesitate to share it with me.

Thanks beforehand!!!

marked as duplicate by Edwin Ashworth, tchrist Nov 5 '17 at 20:02

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  • My instinct is that the commas round the phrases in 1. and 2. could well be left out. 3. is a more complex sentence in which those commas are needed. – Kate Bunting Oct 30 '17 at 9:18
  • @KateBunting is there any grammatical rule that you could suggest might work here? – user241133 Oct 30 '17 at 9:25
  • See also english.stackexchange.com/questions/324338/… – Xanne Oct 30 '17 at 9:30
  • ... 'I began installing a new system, or ROM, on my phone every weekend. In the process, I broke the poor phone a great many times.' – Edwin Ashworth Oct 30 '17 at 9:30
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These are parenthetical commas - ie, they function like parentheses (aka brackets or braces) within the sentence. So to see if they're right you could switch them for actual parentheses. Eg (I've added 'an' before 'infinite' as I think it needs it - this isn't stricly relevant to the question but it will clarify things).

I began installing a new system (or ROM) on my phone every weekend and (in the process) broke the poor phone an infinite amount of times.

The parts in parentheses add more information, in addition to the main thing you're trying to communicate. If you took them out, would the sentence make sense?

I began installing a new system on my phone every weekend and broke the poor phone an infinite amount of times.

Yep, that's fine - it works without the parentheses, so the parentheses are correct, and therefore the commas are correct.

In total, my victim phone got broken 26 times, and, every single time, I found a way to revive it

could become

In total, my victim phone got broken 26 times, and (every single time) I found a way to revive it.

without the parentheses:

In total, my victim phone got broken 26 times, and I found a way to revive it.

Hmm, this feels wrong. It now sounds like "I found a way to revive it" happened only once, not 26 times. This alerts us to that fact that "every single time" can't be removed from the sentence in this way. Which, in turn, means we need to revisit the commas. I'd rewrite the original as:

In total, my victim phone got broken 26 times, and every single time I found a way to revive it.

This is better, I think.

Finally:

English opened the doors of an entirely new world—one brimming with knowledge and values not confined to the limits of my country—for me to explore, and, as I began to explore, my childhood fervor for playing games paved way for a much implacable thirst for learning.

We've got a new element here - the em dash, often referred to as simply "dash", or as a "hyphen" (it's technically different to a hyphen (it's bigger, for example) but this isn't terribly important, I think. Em dashes are harder to do with a computer keyboard and so people often use hyphens instead). It performs a similar function to the parentheses, or parenthetical commas, of inserting a subclause into the middle of a sentence.

Keeping the em dashes but parenthesising the rest of it, we could rewrite it as

English opened the doors of an entirely new world — one brimming with knowledge and values not confined to the limits of my country — for me to explore, and (as I began to explore) my childhood fervor for playing games paved the way for a much implacable thirst for learning.

If we took the parenthesised section out, would the sentence work?

English opened the doors of an entirely new world — one brimming with knowledge and values not confined to the limits of my country — for me to explore, and my childhood fervor for playing games paved the way for a much implacable thirst for learning.

Yes, this seems fine, which tells us that the parentheses work, and therefore that the parenthetical commas work.

So, I think in summary that examples 1 & 3 are fine, but 2 isn't quite right.