Is "All" the subject in this sentence or is "who" the subject?
If all is the subject then believe would be the correct verb agreement. If who is the subject then believes would be the correct verb agreement.
So which is the subject please?

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    All modifying or substituting for a count noun (like people, as here) is always plural, so who, which refers to the same thing, is also plural, and therefore the verb is plural believe, not singular believes. – John Lawler Oct 25 '17 at 21:23
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    That's not a sentence, it's a noun phrase consisting of a pronoun with a restrictive clause. – Hellion Oct 25 '17 at 21:27
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    Who is not always singular, that is, it's not always third person singular. – Arm the good guys in America Oct 25 '17 at 21:32

All who believe is not a sentence; it's a noun phrase.

Taking a sentence starting with all who believe we get

All who believe are believers.

The correct verb form is believe.

Who is not bound to third person singular verb form.

The people who believe are believers.

Who takes the verb form of the subject the people.

Neighbors who insist on believing are believers.

Who insist on believing is the relative clause. But who is plural in this case because its antecedent is the plural subject neighbors.

The same concept goes for

Who am I?

Who is not third person singular. Its verb agrees with the subject it's standing for.

I who believe am a believer.

Who stands for I, which takes am.

As another example showing who is not always third person singular is

You people who are here believe.

Who takes the verb that agrees with you people (second person plural).

Also, second person singular:

Who are you?


You, who are my best friend, are a believer.

Finally, you can also say

All that believe are believers.

That substitution should be a hint that the relative pronoun can be either either singular or plural.

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