When I studied a writing reference book for EIKEN Grade 1 exam, a kind of English exam in Japan, I saw below sentences.

For example, in Japan, driving-related deaths involving alcohol are almost eight times more common than deaths without alcohol,...


Since these are harmful substances, it makes sense to force companies to clarify the health risks involved with these products.

The first sentence contains "deaths involving" and the second sentence contains "risk involved".

Why the first sentence is "deaths involving" and not "deaths involved"? And, also why the second sentence is "risk involved" and not "risk involving"?

And what parts of speech are "involved" and "involved" in these sentences?

  • It's just normal English, just as you used "studied" where you could have used "was studying". – Lawrence Sep 30 '17 at 6:54
  • 1
    The writer could have used 'deaths which involved alcohol'. 'Involving' is a participle. – Kate Bunting Sep 30 '17 at 8:35
  • @Lawrence and Kate Bunting, thanks for your comments. I understood it. – Taka Sep 30 '17 at 12:43

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