Unsatisfyingly, the answer to your question of 'Why does one language do it one way and another language the other?' is that language rules are arbitrary, they just are and there's no reason.
That's a bit of an exaggeration, but the sentiment is well documented. You grow up learning the rules of a language implicitly (no one is teaching you to put adjectives before a noun), but they seem so logical and forceful and to do it any other way would be madness. It surely would be madness in English, it's just not madness for other languages.
Some languages put adjectives (like colors or other descriptors) before the noun 'white house', some afterwards 'casa blanca'. Some put them before and after (FR 'la petite(little) poule(chicken) rouge(red)'. Some put the verb before the object (EN clothes makes the man), some after (LA vestis(clothes) virum(the man) reddit(make)). There are much wilder alternatives: we (those who can read English) follow its rules, and other languages follow theirs.
Who is right? Everybody? Nobody? It's not a matter of 'right' or 'reason', as long as everybody within a community follows the implicitly accepted patterns (note that this can define the community, those that follow a certain pattern are considered a community).
A lot of times we try to come up with justifications, ones that say things like 'the reason adjectives come after nouns is because if you put it first then you don't know what you're modifying until the end forcing you to remember all the way.' or 'Adjectives should come before the noun because they are optional and you only pay attention to the end of a phrase for the important part'. These kinds of rules, as salient as you might think, are simply post-hoc rationalizations for ... wait for it ... arbitrary cultural practices. Do you give gifts for Christmas on the 24th or the 25th? Mustard or mayo on your pastrami? Encouraged to or discouraged from marrying your second cousin or not? Do you say 'He is short' or 'He short'.
I haven't given a justification for why these things are arbitrary, but I'll hint at it. That animal that people ride on called a 'horse' in English... why isn't it called that by everybody in the world? The label is arbitrary; as long as people are consistent they'll be understood. Same with syntax, ordering words (or not sometimes), as long as you do it the way people expect, they'll be understood.
Of course it's not 'anything goes'. No language just scrambles all words arbitrarily whenever. Despite what you may have heard about Latin, there are some things you just can't do in it. For example, a preposition comes immediately before the object it is ... preposing.
All I can say is that these rules are mostly arbitrary but you still gotta learn them otherwise you'll sound weird in that language.