In the example you give involving Usain Bolt, the other athlete could be said to have survivor guilt. https://www.psychologytoday.com/blog/stoic-warrior/201107/the-moral-logic-survivor-guilt. It's more commonly associated with survivors of war and disaster, but it could apply in this case too, especially as it often involves an element of irrational or 'magical' thinking about how one is responsible or guilty.
When someone benefits in pleasure or joy at another's misfortune, it's schadenfreude ... there's no common name for guilt attendant on that feeling, but if that's precisely what you want to express, it might be best to coin a new phrase like 'schadenfreude remorse'.
As Xanne stated, when moral or legal guilt is imputed to the beneficiary of what is otherwise a misfortune, you can ask cui bono?
When someone feels emotional guilt on winning at another's expense, even fairly - that might be classed as neurotic guilt or toxic shame
More benignly, a sense that one's good fortune is not merited could just be an aspect of humility or modesty.
There are also phrases that disparage specific behaviours that seek to profit from 'bad' events: ambulance chaser; vulture capitalist; muckraker ... and so on.
However, I know of no single expression that covers all aspects of the question as posed. [I've presented an answer rather than a comment because it seems very unlikely that a single word or phrase could capture all those senses]