Originally, pathos (πάθος) meant "suffering" and "pain". Today, there are (at least) three main branches of meaning:
- pathological (having to do with desease) as in pathology, psychopathy, sociopathy, neuropathology
- empathic (having to do with care) as in empathy, sympathy
- rhetoric as in pathetic
I wonder when (how, why) these branchings of meaning did occur.
Besides this coarse-grained question I wonder what exactly is the difference between empathy and sympathy. At the surface it seems clear: I can be empathic with people I don't like (don't have sympathy with), but not the other way around, or do I? Why and how did these two words (and their referents) evolve?