I read a vocabulary book . There is a sentence which makes me confused. " The government had passed a bill outlawing smoking while driving" . I wonder if why the author use "outlawing" here but not outlawed or outlaw. Can you explain this grammar structure for me. I am very bad at grammar 😭😭😭
The sentence "The government had passed a bill outlawing smoking while driving" contains an example of a reduced relative clause or non-finite relative clause. It is reduced from:
The government had passed a bill that outlaws smoking while driving.
and contains the non-finite verb outlawing (present participle).
This is a common English sentence pattern. Here are some more authentic examples:
I lost my phone containing private information ... . (that contains)
The camera followed the car driving around for a little bit. (that was driving)
Nirenberg is currently collaborating on a book exploring the relative claims of different forms of knowledge. (that explores)
Reduced or non-finite relative clauses (i.e. clauses post-modifying noun phrases) can also be formed with the past participle:
Gundry has denied the fact stated in the report. (that was stated)
We are actors in a play written by others (that was written)
There's a good, brief explanation of reduced relative clauses on TESOL-direct.