It seems that these are called "section breaks" (sometimes "scene breaks"):
Sections are visually separated from each other with a section break, typically consisting of extra space between the sections. They are a concern in the process of typography and pagination, where it may be desirable to have a page break follow a section break for the sake of aesthetics or readability.
In fiction, sections often represent scenes, and accordingly the space separating them is sometimes also called a scene break.
The bottom left of the image shows a section break. A section break doesn't necessarily need to be only three asterisks, although that is the most common. In this blog, it shows that the section breaks could be hash signs as well.
Alternatively, it could be an "asterism" :
In typography, an asterism, from the Greek astēr ('star'),1 is a rarely used, and "nearly obsolete",2 symbol consisting of three asterisks placed in a triangle (⁂). It is used to, "indicate minor breaks in text,
Later on the text from the link, it seems that an asterism is usually written like " * * *" :
Often, this symbol is replaced with three, sometimes more, consecutive asterisks or dots.