I would say it depends of the compressed archive to be honest. Some executable can be archive that needs to be decompressed, and they can also execute an executable after. An example of this would be drivers you download from manufacturer's website. HP and Dell for example, offers drivers under the form of an .exe, that when execute will extract itself in another location (like C:\Dell\Drivers\FOLDER) and once extracted, it'll execute the .exe inside it that launches the drivers installation. So if you were to come across a such executable, then yes executing it and "extracting" it could lead to an infection assuming that the executable file executed after the extraction is malicious.
Is it a conditional statement? The meaning is ambiguous to me, can you please explain it in the context provided? Thank you in advance.