I am thinking "value" is close, but I also want to use the word "value" for the whole thing.

A value of 5 inches...

in which case the "value" should be broken into the "___" and the "unit".

An example sentence:

In my software, to represent the different distances unambiguously, I store the unit along with the ___.

  • Quite. …store the unit along with the quantity. – Robbie Goodwin Jul 23 '17 at 0:28
  • Value should not be broken into anything. Value should be specified with appropriate units. – Rusty Core Feb 9 '19 at 1:11

According to "What is the difference between quantity and unit", in math and science the word is "quantity". So in 450kg, the 450 is the quantity and unit is kg.

However, the National Institute of Standard and Technology seems to use "numerical value".

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Value or amount are both fine. Mathematically, coefficient is also acceptable.

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  • 1
    Uh… to me, that seems to add only confusion. Value and amount are both fine but neither is in any way necessary, nor in any way better that quantity. If coefficient were acceptable how would that work? Would it be a coefficient of length or what, please? – Robbie Goodwin Jul 23 '17 at 0:18

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