I agree with the other answer's definition of triage. Copying it here in case the other answer changes:
Triage is the process of quickly examining sick or injured people, for example after an accident or a battle, so that those who are in the most serious condition can be treated first.
However, in a software development environment, I would argue that "triage" refers to troubleshooting/fixing problems on the production server, in a live environment.
The live application is the "sick or injured person" from the definition of triage.
If you mean "debugging" as in "debugging on the production server", then it is similar, but you need to make that distinction clear, as it is not clear from only calling it "debugging".
Without any distinction made, I would expect the debugging to be done in a local (safe) testing environment; which excludes the inherent connotation of urgency (critical to patient survival) that triage is most often related to.
I could elaborate more on specific ways to debug, e.g. the reproduction of issues on the live environment in the testing environment. However, that is a level of distinction that cannot be accurately described by "triage" and I am therefore considering it irrelevant for the current question.
Please do note that these are analogies, and they are not only bound by semantical definition, but also whether or not they are understood in the context that they are used.
As software development is a very abstract field, it's hard to pinpoint accurate analogies. If you look at the definition of the analogy closely enough, you will always find some way in which it doesn't really apply to the referenced software development concept.