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  • wire transfer
  • money transfer
  • bank transfer
  • remittance
  • appropriation

I am confused because in German there is only the word Banküberweisung that, as far as I know, encompasses all of them.

I read that wire transfer goes back to when money was transfered via telegraph but is it still used today to refer to bank transfers? Of the mentioned words is there a dominating one, that I can use most of the time when talking about modern banks and online banking.

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3

According to Collins ...

A wire transfer is a direct payment of money from one bank account into another

Bank transfer ... a payment between two bank accounts

So, both wire transfer and bank transfer are defined as a transfer of money from one bank account to another. Although "wire transfer" may originally have referred to a particular form of bank transfer it remains widely used regardless of the actual means of transfer. They are both forms of money transfer executed by a bank or by an agent interacting with a bank on your behalf. So, if the context is money transferred between two bank accounts then I think you can use either "wire transfer" or "bank transfer".

The phrase "money transfer" is more general, if one party removes some cash from his/her wallet and hands it to another party then a money transfer has taken place but it is not a "bank transfer" or "wire transfer". That said, context might be enough to make clear that the type of "money transfer" in question is a formal or bank intermediated one but if it is important to indicate the specific nature of a money transfer then using "bank transfer" or "wire transfer" might be more appropriate.

A remittance is a sum of money that you send to someone.

Remittance describes the money which is being transferred

An appropriation is an amount of money that a government or organization reserves for a particular purpose.

I don't think this belongs with the other terms, although an appropriation is (eventually) money it is not necessarily "bank" or "wire" transferred.

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