You could use "claim".
The following is taken from the Consumer Affairs Victoria website:
When a tenancy ends the tenant may receive the whole bond, or only a part of it, if the landlord claims the money to cover any damages caused to the property.
This also aligns with what I was taught in Legal Studies. Note that the bond is the equivalent to your "security deposit".
I notice that the OP has since updated their question to specify that they would like American terms. I took it upon myself to search for "landlord security deposit" on the American version of Google, and found an American general-reference law site that had a page on security deposits.
Based on this page, these could be possible options. However, I'm not overly familiar with American law.
Sometimes a security deposit is called a "damage deposit," and is generally some amount of money that the landlord is able to hold on to if a rental property needs any cleaning or repairs, in order to return the property to the condition it was in when the renter first moved in.
[If a landlord does not return all of your security deposit, you may be able to sue.] This action, allowed by security deposit laws, is generally called a Wrongful Withholding of Security Deposit or a Wrongful Retention of Security Deposit lawsuit. If you do decide to take legal action, you may be able to recover all or some of your security deposit.