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Throughout history Milan has been alternately dominated by France, Spain, and Austria, which makes it a city full of different cultural influences.

I thought it was 'make' at first, because France, Spain, and Austria are plural, but apparently it is 'makes'. Could anyone please explain this, as English is not my first language?

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Makes is the correct form of the verb, because the subject of the clause is which and the word which refers back to the act of dominating, not to France, Spain, or Austria. The sentence can be rewritten as:

The domination throughout history by France, Spain, and Austria alternately over Milan makes it a city full of different cultural influences.

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The pronoun 'which' refers to the entire event (... dominated ...) which is singular, and not to the plural list of countries.

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Throughout history Milan has been alternately dominated by France, Spain, and Austria, which makes it a city full of different cultural influences.

The words written in bold above function as a prepositional phrase which serve to modify the main verb dominated. They are not part of the subject ( only modifiers).

Therefore, the verb form make is singular = makes = referring to Milan.

You could rewrite the sentence as follows without the modifying phrase which shows you that added information is missing See below.

Throughout history Milan has been alternately dominated , which makes it a city full of different cultural influences.

I hope that makes sense

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