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Macron beat far-right candidate Marine Le Pen to become France's youngest-ever president.

in this sentence

I am confused with its function, to become.

Is it used as an adverb? adjective? noun?

can you give me more examples like this?

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"to become" is the infinitive in the infinitive phrase. A infinitive is made up of the word "to" and simple verb.

Infinitives can be used as nouns, adjectives, or adverbs

and

Infinitive phrases can function as nouns, adjectives, or adverbs

Examples (from the link):

As a noun:

To finish her shift without spilling another pizza into a customer's lap is Michelle's only goal tonight.

As an adjective:

The best way to survive Dr. Peterson's boring history lectures is a sharp pencil to stab in your thigh if you catch yourself drifting off.

As an adverb:

Kelvin, an aspiring comic book artist, is taking Anatomy and Physiology this semester to understand the interplay of muscle and bone in the human body.

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