I want to sort out which terms build on each other but am getting confused because there are so many terms that I'm not seeing how they are related.
It seems like grammar is made of:
Clauses Phrases Words
And parts of speech is made of:
Noun Pronoun Adjective Verb Adverb Preposition Conjunction Interjection Article
But there are also terms like:
Subject Object Verb
That are found in the Subject Verb Object pattern. Note: the term "Verb" appears twice in two categories that seem different. This is also confusing.
All terms are related to the structure of the English language, you know, like the title of this Stack Exchange. The terms fall broadly into three categories:
parts of speech phrases grammatical relations
I'm wanting to sort out the relation between these categories and thus the lists of English terms listed above.
For an example of what I'm looking to achieve:
The following words are all related to the structure of Atomic Physics and Chemistry; however, they don't make sense when they are all jumbled together:
water electron hydrogen quark neutron proton oxygen
However, by arranging them in a specific order they make more sense:
quark electron hydrogen water neutron oxygen proton
The key insight is: each of these words falls into categories. Each category provides the units required to build units in other categories.
It makes sense because quarks are the units that build electrons, neutrons, and protons; electrons, neutrons, and protons are the units that build atoms like hydrogen or oxygen; and atoms like hydrogen and oxygen build molecules like water.
Can you explain the difference and relation between a) parts of speech (i.e. word categories), b) phrases (phrasal categories) and c) grammatical relations (like Subject or Object)?
I would especially appreciate some type of diagram that draws relations between the above three categories.