Coming from my background as a programmer, if I were to come up with a naming scheme to group these, I would create these groups:
Object Descriptors: Nouns, Adjectives
Action Descriptors: Verbs, Adverbs, Prepositions
Articles and conjunctions, would probably fall into a separate named category.
Are you asking this question for the purpose of implementing some type of natural language processing? Because if so, you should look into the naming schemes used there.
Adjectives and nouns grouped together are referred to as "Noun Phrases" and Adverbs and Verbs are grouped together into "Verb Phrases".