Context: In French, some last names have an aristocratic particle (e.g. Alfred de Musset). The latter is yet ommited when one refers to a person via its last name only. One would for example say:
Musset was a French dramatist.*
La Confession d'un enfant du siècle of Musset.
(Note that there are some exception in the case of a mono-syllabic name (e.g. "De Gaulle was the first president of the fifth French Republique") or some "d-based" particles ("Du Guesclin died in 1380").
Question: Does this rule exists in English? And what about aristocratic particle from other languages (notably von, van, van den, etc.)?
*And not "De Musset was a French dramatist."