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Assuming I am writing a formal letter/essay for CAE exam, should I use reduced relative clauses and participle clauses? I mean, are they formal?

"(Having been) Proved by scientists leading(who are leading) an international group of experts in biology, global warming is rising quickly". ( examples for participle clause at the beginning + reduced relative clause)

In order to be very very formal, should I write as I did in this example, omitting... Or I should write the sentence below?

" As it has been proved by scientists..that global < (even if, to me,it sounds incorrect because I think I should write the object after proved)

I want it to be as much formal as possibile (taking into account the fact of writing in an impersonal style)

  • Yes, to be honest, here, I wrote fast without paying too much attention. Now I m going to modify it..please, if you wouldn'd mind answering when it is ok – Francis Rick Onorato May 19 '17 at 12:30
  • Your example is not a sentence since there is no finite verb phrase; it's just a lengthy gerund-participial clause. "Leading" is not some kind of relative clause; it's a gerund-participial clause modifying "scientists". – BillJ May 19 '17 at 12:37
  • Yes, in fact the reduced relative Clause is after scientists. I do know that the first part of the sentence is a parteciple . ( I outlined it after the example) – Francis Rick Onorato May 19 '17 at 12:46
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The main problem with the sentence is the unnecessary usage of passive constructs. You know the subject of 'proved' - 'scientists', so write the sentence in the active voice:

"Scientists leading an international group of experts in biology have proved that global warming is rising quickly."

Don't confuse formal writing with verbose writing. Keep it concise.

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