Assuming I am writing a formal letter/essay for CAE exam, should I use reduced relative clauses and participle clauses? I mean, are they formal?

"(Having been) Proved by scientists leading(who are leading) an international group of experts in biology, global warming is rising quickly". ( examples for participle clause at the beginning + reduced relative clause)

In order to be very very formal, should I write as I did in this example, omitting... Or I should write the sentence below?

" As it has been proved by scientists..that global < (even if, to me,it sounds incorrect because I think I should write the object after proved)

I want it to be as much formal as possibile (taking into account the fact of writing in an impersonal style)

closed as primarily opinion-based by Drew, choster, Hellion, NVZ, Chris H May 27 '17 at 17:18

Many good questions generate some degree of opinion based on expert experience, but answers to this question will tend to be almost entirely based on opinions, rather than facts, references, or specific expertise. If this question can be reworded to fit the rules in the help center, please edit the question.

  • Yes, to be honest, here, I wrote fast without paying too much attention. Now I m going to modify it..please, if you wouldn'd mind answering when it is ok – Francis Rick Onorato May 19 '17 at 12:30
  • Your example is not a sentence since there is no finite verb phrase; it's just a lengthy gerund-participial clause. "Leading" is not some kind of relative clause; it's a gerund-participial clause modifying "scientists". – BillJ May 19 '17 at 12:37
  • Yes, in fact the reduced relative Clause is after scientists. I do know that the first part of the sentence is a parteciple . ( I outlined it after the example) – Francis Rick Onorato May 19 '17 at 12:46

The main problem with the sentence is the unnecessary usage of passive constructs. You know the subject of 'proved' - 'scientists', so write the sentence in the active voice:

"Scientists leading an international group of experts in biology have proved that global warming is rising quickly."

Don't confuse formal writing with verbose writing. Keep it concise.

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