It seems to me that the negation "[conjugated verb] + not" was used in parallel with "[conjugated "do"] + not + verb" in Early Modern English:
When thou tookest upon thee to deliver man : thou didst not abhor the Virgin's womb. (Te Deum, 1549)
Love looks not with the eyes, but with the mind, And therefore is winged Cupid painted blind. (A Midsummer Night's Dream, 1595)
And he stayed yet other seven days; and sent forth the dove; which returned not again unto him any more. (King James Bible, 1611)
Lo, he abhors not the Virgin's womb. (O Come, All Ye Faithful, 1841)
Thou changest not, Thy compassions they fail not. (Great Is Thy Faithfulness, 1923)
Even today, "be" still uses the former structure.
What is the evolution of these two forms of negation?