For example, the absolute sovereignty of God and the free will of man. The Bible teaches that both are true, yet they appear to contradict each other on a human level of understanding.
I think that Paradox comes closest. Merriam-Webster has a number of definitions, but the one that looks appropriate is:
2 a : a statement that is seemingly contradictory or opposed to common sense and yet is perhaps true
The key here is seemingly contradictory.
which Merriam-Webster defines as:
A contradiction between two apparently equally valid principles or between inferences correctly drawn from such principles
and of which Britannica states
...contradiction, real or apparent, between two principles or conclusions, both of which seem equally justified;
Not to be confused with antimony, chemical element #51.
I would call this an apparent contradiction. The contradiction isn't really there, but I think it is -- due to ignorance or some other limitation.
Also, I will preemptively bring up the psychological phenomenon called cognitive dissonance (Reference). It may apply in some peoples' minds. But, I propose shooting it down as an answer because cognitive dissonance is when someone holds two ideas that are indeed contradictory. Like having a weasel and a badger in your brain at the same time -- they don't get along! Again, I don't think it applies here because Dwight is looking for a way of describing two things that are indeed true.
While not exactly what you're looking for, oxymoron comes close:
A figure of speech in which apparently contradictory terms appear in conjunction (e.g. faith unfaithful kept him falsely true)
I've heard this usually applied to an adjective-noun pair, such as in jumbo shrimp or military intelligence.
you might consider:
yin-yang or perhaps dualities
In Chinese philosophy, yin and yang (also yin–yang or yin yang, 陰陽 yīnyáng "dark–bright") describe how seemingly opposite or contrary forces may actually be complementary, interconnected, and interdependent in the natural world, and how they may give rise to each other as they interrelate to one another.
Many tangible dualities (such as light and dark, fire and water, expanding and contracting) are thought of as physical manifestations of the duality symbolized by yin and yang.
This duality lies at the origins of many branches of classical Chinese science and philosophy, as well as being a primary guideline of traditional Chinese medicine,1 and a central principle of different forms of Chinese martial arts and exercise, such as baguazhang, taijiquan (t'ai chi), and qigong (Chi Kung), as well as appearing in the pages of the I Ching.
For the specific context of Christian theology, such contradictions which defy rational analysis are referred to as mysteries. See wikipedia, which references some offline books.
In theology, an article of faith or doctrine which defies man's ability to grasp it fully, something that transcends reason, is called "a mystery of the faith".
Depending on the context, another option can be incongruous juxtaposition.
From google dictionary:
jux·ta·po·si·tion ˌjəkstəpəˈziSH(ə)n/ noun
- the fact of two things being seen or placed close together with contrasting effect. "the juxtaposition of these two images"
- not in harmony or keeping with the surroundings or other aspects of something. "the duffel coat looked incongruous with the black dress she wore underneath"
Not sure if this works in the context you are talking about but doublethink
Doublethink is the act of simultaneously accepting two mutually contradictory beliefs as correct, often in distinct social contexts
The word used to describe this when I attended theology lectures was tension. Unfortunately I haven't had much success in finding the word in online theology glossaries, but one general dictionary gives
2.2 A relationship between ideas or qualities with conflicting demands or implications.
‘the basic tension between freedom and control’
which is essentially the same idea.
Paradox is pretty close to what you wanted. Now, the behaviour of accepting such opposing viewpoints is called "Cognitive Dissonance"
In psychology, cognitive dissonance is the mental discomfort (psychological stress) experienced by a person who simultaneously holds two or more contradictory beliefs, ideas, or values. The occurrence of cognitive dissonance is consequence of a person's performing an action that contradicts personal beliefs, ideals, and values; and also occurs when confronted with new information that contradicts said beliefs, ideals, and values.