"Brake" is an archaic past-tense form of "break", as Peter Shor notes. I don't know of any signficiance to its use in the KJV other than that it's archaic. I am very doubtful that it relates in any way to the Hebrew conjugation (especially since, as michael.hor257k points out, the Pauline epistles like 1 Corinthians were originally written in Koine Greek, not Hebrew).
To understand where "brake" comes from, we need to look at how this verb was conjugated in Old English. It had a different, more complicated type of vowel alternation with different vowels in the infinitive, singular past tense, plural past tense and past participle.
The Oxford English dictionary gives the forms as follows:
brecan (bricþ, past tense bræc, brǽcon, past participle brocen)
The vowel of the past participle, "short o", regularly developed to the long o of modern English "broken" due to a Middle-English vowel lengthening rule.
But the vowels of the Old English past tense forms had a more complicated development, and were eventually lost.
What seems to have happened is that in Middle English, the separate singular and plural past tense forms corresponding to Old English bræc and brǽcon (which regularly turned into something like brak and breken or breke in Middle English) became confused and were ultimately replaced by a hybrid form brake (with the "a" lengthened due to the final "e", in the same way as the "o" of the participle).
This past tense form "brake" existed for a while, but it eventually became replaced by the form "broke"; this is thought to be due to the influence of the past partiple "broken", and I think it's also likely that it was partly due to the use of "o" in the past tense of many other verbs, such as "drove" (from "drive") and "strode" (from "stride").
There are some other verbs had the same vowel pattern in their conjugation in Old English (e in the infinitive, æ in the singular past tense, ǽ in the plural past tense, o in the past participle). Verbs with this vowel pattern in Old English are called "class 4 strong verbs". Some examples that developed similarly to break are tear and bear, which have archaic past-tense forms tare and bare.