If i want to say that (A) is longer than (B) to a great extent?
Can i say "(A) is longer than (B) by a great degree" or by a great deal" or there is another expression that can be used ?
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You could simply say "much greater than." There is a mathematical symbol for this. From Wolfram Mathworld:
"Much greater" is used to indicate a strong inequality in which a is not only greater than b, but much greater (by some convention), is denoted a>>b. For an astronomer, "much" may mean by a factor of 100 (or even 10), while for a mathematician, it might mean by a factor of 10^4 (or even much more).
Euclid used the terminology that if a is greater than b and b is greater than c, then a is said to be much (or far) greater than c. In that sense, "far greater than" is synonymous with "greater than" for a dense set of ordered quantities.
In your case, the sentence would be: "The length of a is much greater than the length of b."
A comparison of lengths would benefit from expressions like "A is twice as long as B" or "A is half again as long as B", rather than the fuzzier phrases like "by a great deal." (Or strong, rather than long, if strength is what is being compared.)
With less measurable attributes, one might speak of A as a great deal more intriguing, fascinating, arresting, awesome, (informally) mind-blowing, than B.