I'm looking for a term that means something similar to the idea expressed by the phrase “if all you have is a hammer, everything looks like a nail,” but where the hammer is the set of skills, jargon, norms, etc. associated with a profession.
The term would describe the physicist in this comic.
There is a Portuguese phrase with this meaning: “deformação profissional” (literally professional deformation). It's a play on the phrase “formação profissional” (professional qualification).