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In common speech, I often hear stoic used as an adjective. (I am ignoring definitions related to Stoicism.)

Merriam-Webster validates this use with the definition "not affected by or showing passion or feeling." It also gives stoical as a variant.

Meanwhile, Oxford only calls the adjective "another form for stoical." It defines stoical as "enduring pain and hardship without showing one's feelings or complaining," which matches Merriam-Webster's definition of stoic.

I understand words can have multiple accepted variations of spelling, but the difference between stoic and stoical seems more than just spelling.

If these two major dictionaries disagree about which form is more standard, which one actually is? The idea that stoic is only a noun and stoical its adjective form, as suggested by the Oxford dictionary, makes sense but conflicts with common usage. If the common choice of stoic, supported by Merriam-Webster, is correct, why does the Oxford dictionary defer it to stoical?

Perhaps this is simply an issue of personal preference, but I am at least curious about reasons one form may be preferred over the other.

  • 4
    You may be interested in looking at some of the other questions about "-ic" vs. "-ical" – sumelic Apr 14 '17 at 7:08
  • @sumelic I didn't even realize this was a common issue for other words. Thank you. – Zach Apr 14 '17 at 7:13
  • An unscientific survey of Americans and Brits at the breakfast table unanimously goes with stoic as an adjective. All would say "They are stoic" and not "They're a stoic". So we actually construct sentences to use it as an adjective and avoid the noun usage. And Stoical just got blank stares. – Phil Sweet Apr 14 '17 at 14:21
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Stoic is a commonly accepted alternative spelling to stoical. "The adjective (stoic) is recorded from 1590s in the "repressing feelings" sense, c. 1600 in the philosophical sense". (Etymonline)

  • of or relating to the school of philosophy founded by Zeno, who taught that people should be free from passion, unmoved by joy or grief, and submit without complaint to unavoidable necessity.

  • (lowercase) stoical.

(Dictionary.com)

The following Google Books search appears to suggest that the adjective stoic is becoming more common than stoical.

  • It looks like stoical predates stoic, which became an accepted variant some decades later? – Zach Apr 14 '17 at 7:16
  • @Zach - Yes, and both usages are centuries old. – user66974 Apr 14 '17 at 7:18

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